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East European Dating and Eastern European Single Women – Europe in Love

Dating men & women from different cultures has always fascinated us since years and now it has become easier, thanks to the world of online dating.  And, European dating has secured a bigger space for itself in the current dating scene on the net.

There are hundreds of websites offering European dating services, but not each of them is legitimate.

Dating Europe –

In Europe, a large number of men & women are single and they all want to find their life partners, be it online or offline, but the first way is much easier now. Hundreds of thousands of people have registered themselves on the European dating sites & you can choose from this huge list according to your interests & preferences.

Now, the phrase European dating itself has many meanings within – French dating, Italian dating, Spanish dating, German dating & so on.

Dating European gives you an easy way to find a European partner of your choice with no hard efforts. It gives you a platform to know a person before making a decision to spend your life with them. You can search for a prospective European partner for you by searching for you that matches with your interests, likes & dislikes. And, the language is no more a barrier now, the online language translators help you translate what you want to say to other person.


You just need to create a profile filling your basic & personal information like your age, race, nationality, built, profession, height, weight & appearance, single/divorced, children/want children etc-etc. Then, you need to fill in information like what kind of partner you are looking for & you also need to describe yourself in few sentences that give a clear idea about you to other people searching for their partners. And, not to mention that adding a picture to your profile always increase your chances.

You can find women from all different parts of Europe on European dating on the net – Russian women, Romanian women, Ukrainian brides, Belarus women, etc-etc. Hundreds of thousands of beautiful women have their profiles on European dating online.

So, enjoy the benefits of European dating and find a perfect partner for yourself sitting miles away. No more geographical limitations can limit you from meeting your European date. You can have your choice of European dating partner that matches your interests & preferences.

European dating provides you free trial and you can enjoy many great services like chat, video chat, SMS & email for a nominal fee. You can hide your contact information in you profile unless you want it to be visible to everyone.

You can find your European soul mate within a few days. Millions of people are enjoying dating Europe, so why left behind when a meaning relationship can be formed very easily.

So, go ahead and date a European partner with commune interests and color your life.

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Squeezing Islam in Europe Doesn’t Work. The case of Swiss and Farance

Hasan A. Yahya, Professor of Sociology

Four incidents recently occurred in Europe and the United States brought intellectual attention and serious discussions on the crazy world prejudice in the name of religion.

On 1 July, this year,  Marwa al-Sherbini, an Egyptian woman who wore the headscarf and was three months pregnant, was brutally murdered in a Dresden courtroom by a German man of Russian descent who declared ‘you have no right to live’. The victim  was stabbed eighteen times in the space of thirty seconds. It was a frenzied attack, clearly motivated by racism and Islamophobia. Yet the German state and media, have been in a state of denial. The press reported it as a neighborhood dispute, with headlines such as ‘Murder over quarrel over swing’. Amidst widespread anger in Egypt, the press officer at the German embassy in Cairo declared the murder an isolated case and a ‘criminal act. It has nothing to do with persecution against Muslims’. European leaders must immediately condemn Sherbini’s murder, hold her killer accountable, and acknowledge that Islamophobia is a growing threat–otherwise, they are precariously close to repeating past horrors. Many researchers on Islamic issues in Europe say that all eyes are now on the prosecuting authority, to see what charges are brought against Alexandre W. Kathrin Klausing does not see the prosecuting authority, which has instructed the police to start a murder investigation and has described the killer as clearly ‘driven by a deep hatred of Muslims’, as the real culprit. The Sherbini  murder was linked to ‘public-media discourse’. Where People are looking for victims and Muslims are sometimes seen as a viable option. Some obsevers say: “The real responsibility for this awful case lies with the increasingly anti-Islamic and racist climate in society, an atmosphere in which politicians and public intellectuals and celebrities have played a great part.”

Judaism is next feeling the heat with Muslims is joining forces with Muslims, a Jewish reader’s comment reads, “If we condemn Ahmadinejad and other patrons of terrorism, we must commend those Muslim intellectuals and religious leaders who have the courage to speak out publicly against the continued fomentation of Judaeophobia in the rise of  Neo-Nazi National Party (NPD) in Germany, The members dream of rebuilding Hitler’s Third Reich. The Secretary General of the German Jewish Council, has been one of only a handful of non-Muslim voices in Germany willing to describe the murder as motivated by Islamophobia.

Others return the causes of violent actions against immigrants especially from Muslim countries to the downturn in the economy and unemployment are factors playing into the hands of the NPD which, in some areas of eastern Germany, is attempting to create ‘national liberation zones’ where no foreigner would dare to go. Such actions remind us of KKK actions of white supremacist in the U.S in the 1960s of last century, where they blockade the highways and kill non-whites.

The story: A Russian-born German who stabbed to death an Egyptian woman in a courtroom was given Germany’s highest possible sentence for murder yesterday — 15 years’ jail with no chance of early parole. The case enraged the Arab world, in particular Egypt, with street demonstrators and commentators blaming Germany for encouraging Islamophobia. The victim, Marwa al-Shirbini, 31, a pharmacist, has been hailed as a “veil martyr” because she stood up against the assailant, Alexander Wiens, 28. A fatwa has been pronounced on Wiens and the trial in Dresden was held under extraordinary security, with the courthouse cleared and 200 armed police encircling the room.

By the time the case came to court in July last year, Ms al-Shirbini was three months’ pregnant. In court, the killer removed a long knife from under his jacket and stabbed her 18 times. Her husband tried to stop the attack but was stabbed 16 times. When a policeman arrived, he ended up shooting the husband in the leg rather than the assailant. The scene was witnessed by the couple’s three-year-old son.

The case began last year on a children’s playground in Dresden. Wiens was sitting on a child’s swing. Ms al-Shirbini, who was wearing a headscarf, asked him to move so that she could push her two-year-old boy. Wiens, a Russian of ethnic origin who had emigrated from Siberia in 2003, yelled at her, accusing her of being an “Islamicist” and a “terrorist”. Ms al-Shirbini decided to press charges and the man was duly fined. But he challenged the judgment.


Court Judge Wiegand said. “He was convinced that all foreigners were taking work away from him,” “Above all, he hated Muslims. In his eyes they were all Islamicists. Wiens admitted the killing, in his testimony,  but denied that the motivation was racist.

In Texas, The shootings of the Fort Hood gunman Nidal Malik Hasan  have set off nationwide soul-searching and worries about his  motives. 13 fellow soldiers, five medical staff like himself, and over 30 injured were the result of his emotional decision. The reason,  his job in the Army, Hasan was working with patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder stemming from U.S. combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. He was helping out, but associates and relatives have said he was disturbed that U.S. Muslim soldiers could fight against fellow Muslims in those countries. He asked to be released, his request denied, he became isolated, and did his ugly job, killing innocents of his own colleagues.  Was he motivated by faith or by his insanity?

Sarkozy says the Swiss “no” to minarets on Muslim mosques in a recent referendum is not a bid to deny essential freedoms to Muslims but reflects an ebbing of a sense of belonging, and identity, in a globalised world. The French president used outrage over the Swiss vote to explain the need for a national debate on the French identity that started last month. Sarkozy publicized his call for integration and pledged to French Muslims to do “everything” to combat discrimination and ensure they can feel like full-fledged citizens of France.  But he threatened [or politely cautioned] that “anything that could appear as a challenge” to France’s Christian roots and republican values would lead to the “failure” in the drive to promote a form of moderate Islam in France. In fact, a French parliamentary inquiry is currently holding hearings on whether to ban the full Islamic veil and the “burqa debate” has raised questions about how far France is willing to go to accommodate its Muslim minority.

Mr. Sarkozy responded that  integration meant a mutual acceptance by both new arrivals and the existing population of what each could bring the other while respecting certain fundamental standards. In  France  a repeated episodes highlighting concerns over integrating immigrants from its Muslim former colonies in North and West Africa was  the latest controversy centring on whether to ban all-covering burqas to be worn in public.

President Nicolas Sarkozy on Tuesday warned French believers against religious “ostentation and provocation” after Switzerland voted to ban Muslims from building minarets. Referring to Muslim women who wear all-enveloping veils such as the burqa, a practice Sarkozy  opposes,.he said believers should guard against “all ostentation.”

Reactions to the Swiss : French President Nicolas Sarkozy said Switzerland’s vote to ban new minarets showed why it was vital for France to hold an extended debate on national identity despite criticism that it has only fuelled racist views. Mr. Sarkozy highlighted the defense of national identity in his 2007 election campaign and pressed for the public debate that is due to end in February with a list of proposals.

Sarkozy in an opinion piece in Le Monde daily wrote:”Christians, Jews, Muslims, all believers regardless of their faith, must refrain from ostentation and provocation and … practice their religion in humble discretion,” The president was wading into an increasingly tense debate over national identity that has zeroed in on immigration fears in France, home to Europe’s largest Muslim minority hosting over  six million Muslims congregate in less than 2,500 prayer houses and mosques. Data shows currently in France there is 64 mosques with minarets of which seven have “tall minarets.”  The government has said France will not ban minaret construction and noted that mayors have the final say on whether new mosques can be built with tall towers.

In Switzerland, an anti-immigrant, right-wing Swiss populists launched the referendum, which passed with more than 57 percent of the vote. The outcome says a lot about how Western Europeans feel about the growing number of Muslim immigrants, who live as second-class citizens.

Do we have to commend the Swiss government, which opposed the ban and says the vote has nothing to do with the free practice of Islam in Switzerland, or stand against it? Free men and women ask. On the surface, the outcome of the Swiss vote banning minarets is an issue of architecture, not religion. Minarets can be beautiful. Islam is known for inspiring outstanding architecture. The Taj Mahal in India, considered the world’s most beautiful building, has four minarets. They are part of mosques built around the world, and the concept of the minaret has been designed into noteworthy non-Muslim architecture. Beneath the surface, however,  is a greater issue than architecture. Minarets are a symbol of Islam just as church steeples are a symbol of Christianity. A minaret on the skyline says a substantial number of Muslims live nearby.  

Switzerland Banks act as the box treasury and suitcase for billions of Dollars owned by Muslims and Arabs especially those corrupted governments and wealthy oil sharks. Minimum reaction from those millionaires and governments is expected. Many people raise boycotting Swiss Banks as a result of the vote. But who cares in the declining Muslim and disunited Arab world? But does that solve the escalation of hatred and racist actions by the name of religion or freedom?

In conclusion, these incidents and more can be prevented by increasing knowledge.  Insane persons may be found in any society, in the Arab states, in Europe, in Bombay, in the United States and elsewhere.  Dogmatism and ignorance among un socialized persons cannot be controlled, and incidents will continue to occur. However, according to my research, lack of true knowledge leads to lack of  true understanding, which leads to appreciation, and compromise to live in peace. The other point, these sane or insane people, unfortunately are rotten products of their cultures where violence and intolerance are promoted. In fact, Sarkozi has to be more polite and intelligent as any other leader in the western sphere to show some respect of Islam in their speeches rather than only praising the free well of citizens. In terms of Switzerland, they vote on almost every thing, to restrict garbage collection, groceries and restaurants. I am afraid that time will come to vote  on time they should  go pee or ” to s.h.i.,” So, voting on minarets is normal, in Swiss-Land but what is hidden cannot be understood equally among Muslims and non-Muslims. This wave of misunderstanding promotes HATE and disrespect of other faiths, These types of legislators’ reactions are types of prejudice, which cannot be curbed without sound leadership, and advanced open avenues for liberty like the one in Sweden and the United States after Bush. Sarkozi is an example of these leaders, he’s  showing two faces in his politics, one by smiling to Arab and Muslim leaders through visitations, the other, is showing his dogmatic view in opposing the veil and may encouraging the French people to follow suit with the Swiss vote. But Frensh people cannot be deceived. Any vote of this type,  will not harm Islam, Because Islam is simple and  can be practiced anywhere on earth without temples, but it hurts dogmatic people (those who do not understand others) who are found as I said, in all nations. After all, Muslims are increasing in the west, they are citizens and human beings with emotions and feelings,  like any body else on earth. I would advise leaders in the West and East, in congresses and parliaments, to be careful in their speeches and to be balanced between WE and THEY, and not to show their prejudice, because everyone IS, otherwise, history will through them in its cesspool. (1979 words)

Dr. Hasan A. Yahya, an American philosopher, writer and poet. He authored 30 books in one year covers sociology, psychology, politics, short stories and poetry. And wrote 200 plus articles. His book: 55 short Stories $ Kids in Arabic is his best seller book with 28 short Arabic stories for adults may be found on Amazon. Professor Yahya is an authority on Arab and Muslim cultures. He resides in Michigan, USA. Dr. Yahya has four children and so far nine grandchildren.

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Introduction to Europe in 1600

The States of Europe


At the beginning of the 17th century Spain was regarded as the strongest European power. In addition to her lands in Europe she had a large overseas Empire. She was a very strong military power but had only emerged as a great power in the last century and was a relatively new state. After the Christians had driven the Moors from Spain the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile came into being. Spain became one nation in 1469 when Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile. This was the marriage of the ‘Catholic Kings’. The total unification came with the conquest of Moorish Granada in 1492 and Portugal in 1580.

Spanish power was constantly growing. Columbus’ discovery of the New World brought Spain new territories in addition to newly acquired territories of the Two Sicilies and the Netherlands. Charles V became King of Spain in 1516 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 uniting these positions in his person until his abdication in 1555 and thereafter the Spanish were united by marriages with the House of Habsburg. The Counter-Reformation made Spain the major Catholic power. The reign of Philip II 1555-98 was prosperous even though the Spanish Armada had been defeated in 1588 and Netherlands had revolted.


The 17th century however, saw European dominance pass from Spain to France. In comparison to Spain France had a long national history and a stronger sense of unity but the Reformation seriously endangered French cohesion and in the 16th century much of the country was divided in an intermittent civil war between Huguenots and Roman Catholics. Peace came under Henry IV in 1598 through the Edict of Nantes which granted the Huguenots toleration and the Treaty of Vervins with Spain. France emerged from war with territory in tact and several determined rulers e.g. Louis XIII and Louis XIV made France territories larger especially eastward and French military power rose throughout the 17th century

The Holy Roman Empire

Different from the two compact monarchies of Spain and France the Holy Roman Empire went back to the time of Charlemagne, ruler of the Carolingian Empire of the Franks, extending from northern Germany to southern Italy, from the Atlantic to western Hungary. The Carolingian Empire might now claim to be the western successor of the Roman Empire but Charlemagne’s empire disappeared. The new Roman Empire was revived by Otto the Great, king of the recently united German tribes. He was crowned Emperor in Rome in 932 and from that time the Holy Roman Empire was combined with the German monarchy. Since 1437 the Electors appointed a succession of Habsburg Emperors to act as Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. By the beginning of the 17th century the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire still enclosed much of central Europe. properly speaking however, it consisted of much of Germany, though without Prussia in the east. The Swiss Confederation and the Dutch republic were included among its dominions but now they had asserted their independence. The Habsburg’s own hereditary domains i.e. Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carriola were inside the Empire. Hungary, though subject to them since 1526 remained an elective monarchy in name until this was declared hereditary in the Habsburg line in 1687.

Within Germany itself there were at least 350 separate political entities all supposed to hold their territory from the Emperor. Many were small and insignificant but about a dozen were large and important enough to take part in wider history. Of the lay princes the Lutheran Elector of Saxony, the Calvinist Elector of Brandenburg and the Roman Catholic Duke of Bavaria were important as well as the Elector of Palatine as the Upper and Lower Palatine occupied important areas in the Rhine from which Habsburg communications might be threatened. Also among German territorial princes were many ecclesiastical tenants in chief.


Much of the land i.e. the Rhine and Main valleys were held by bishops and monasteries. Of these spiritual princes the most powerful were the Archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier. Since the German Reformation contention between Protestant and Catholics over the secularization of such prince-bishoprics had become an acute problem by the 17th century.

Under the rank of princes came the tennants-in-chief or ‘free knights’ who often had a small fief of a castle and a few acres but had no feudal superior except the Emperor. There were perhaps 200 who held enough land to be of consequence. The decay of feudalism and the growth of commerce effected these knights disadvantageously. In some areas they formed confederations among themselves and organized a rebellion in 1522 which was put down by the princes. Finally there were Imperial Free Cities e.g. Nuremburg and Ulm which owned large provinces and Nordhausen and Wetzlar which held almost no territory. Some cities became important through trade i.e. Augsburg, Nurmburg, Ratisbon in the south and Hamburg, Lubeck and Bremen in the north where the Hanseatic League which dominated the countries of the Baltic and North Sea. However in the 17th century these cities were feeling the effect of changing economic conditions i.e. the discovery of the New World. Sweden in fact took over much of the trade in the Baltic.

Italian Peninsula

The Italian Peninsula was another region which had failed to achieve national unity. This was largely due to the Papacy asserting their claims to a universal authority preventing the development of a national state. Italy in the 17th century was divided in accordance with Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis of 1559 between France and Spain which assured Spanish domination there until the Treaty of Utrecht.

Spain held Milan in the north and Naples, Sicily and Sardinia in the south. The Papal States ran across the centre of the country. In addition there were independent states e.g. the duchies of Savoy and Tuscany and the ancient Republics of Genoa and Venice. Mantua was a leading strategic fortress in Europe. Most Italian states had to rely upon either France or Spain for protection. This led to frequent changes in their foreign policy to protect their independence.


Poland was the largest state in north eastern Europe. Her territory consisted of the vast plain from western Dvina, a river flowing into the Gulf of Riga to the great Austria-Hungarian mountain range the Carpathians and from the Baltic almost to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Poland lost territory steadily in the second half of the 17th century because she was a weak European country with few natural frontiers and a mixture of groups e.g. Poles, Lithuanians, Ruthenians and Germans. These peoples were united in the person of the Polish monarchy during the 15th and 16th centuries but a strong national government had not evolved by 1600.

Denmark and Sweden

Besides Catholic Poland the other leading powers of the Baltic region were the Lutheran states of Denmark and Sweden. Denmark’s territory not only included Denmark, Iceland and Norway, Jutland and the islands there but also the provinces of Halland, Scania and Blehing around the southern edge of the Scandinavian peninsula. She controlled both sides of the entrance to the Baltic and placed a toll on shipping.. The kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden were united under the Danish monarchy from 1397-1524 when Sweden became independent under Gustavus Vasa. Sweden possessed Finland and Estonia and by the 17th century her internal strength was established and she embarked upon the conquest of the surrounding area which saw the success and failure of the attempt to make the Baltic a Swedish lake.


At the beginning of the 17th century Russia was not a Baltic power. She was denied access to the sea by Sweden, Poland and Turkey. She was regarded as a country suitable for commercial exploitation. The discovery of the White Sea led to increased trading. Immediate neighbours not only blocked Russia’s expansion but thought of her as a suitable area for conquest. However, Russia under Peter the Great took steps to ensure its continued existence. Russia had as yet not really risen as a major power in the 17th century.


After 150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Ottomans gained a decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohacs in 1526. With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in 1541, Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. The north-western part, termed Royal Hungary, was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the Principality of Transylvania, under Ottoman (and later Habsburg) suzerainty. The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the Pashalik of Buda.

In 1686, the Holy League army, containing over 74,000 men from various nations, reconquered Buda from the Turks. After some more crushing defeats for the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by 1718.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Turks, nomads from Asia who became Moslems had already taken practically all the Balkan peninsula and Constantinople by 1453. At the beginning of the 17th century the European empire of the Turks comprised an area equal to France or Spain in Europe. It comprised of all the Balkan peninsula and northwards beyond it as far as the Lower Danube. It contained all of the delta on the Black Sea and north of it the plains of Bessarabia and on to the Dnieper Estuary. Beyond the Crim Tartars, feudatories of the Turks held lands of the Crimean peninsula and territory surrounding the Sea of Azov from Kerch to the Kubai and Don. Most of the kingdoms of Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina were held by the Turks and to the north the Christian principalities of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. The Ottoman Empire had in fact reached the height of its power. During the first half of the 17th century their advance continued into Habsburg territory. At the end of the century when the last great Turkish offensive was broken by the relief of Vienna the tide turned against the Ottomans in Europe and the Empire began to decline.
Simon Harding

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Study Abroad, Europe – the Benefits

Studying abroad is when a student travels to a different nation in the search for academic opportunities. A number students relish the notion of studying overseas – business management, engineering sciences – or some other marketable skill overseas. This approach can have many advantages for a student and generally is appropriated towards for degree points to a postsecondary higher education, but a number of academic pupils who study abroad do so for the experience and not much for credit. Where study abroad Europe issues are involved, there are more or less overseas learning programs to choose from presently, contigent upon the subject the academic enrollees is leaning towards and on the favored country coal.

For example, if a enrollee seeks to learn abroad for aquatic biology, he or she will travel to a nation where hands-on training can be received. There are over 20 plus subjects a person can study abroad, as well as over 50 destinations a student can travel to. For example, a pupil from China who is interested in engineering can get into the Rochester Institute of Technology program in the US. Several course offerings offer various advantages such as university credit, scholarships, and internship to a number of organizations. People many times misapprehend students who study abroad with foreign exchange students, but there is a noticable distinction between the two. Many academies prefer their attendees to be involved with study abroad programs rather than student exchange programs because it is easier, since international programs are more flexible. A student exchange student on average does not earn credit and is for the most part there for the experience and in order to gain knowledge about the foreign language and culture.

For example, if a student in the US desired to learn French, he or she would exchange with an attendee from France who seeks to learn English. Many students who are a part of study abroad programs do it during the summer or some type of school break. It is very popular to go to to Europa-based countries such as Germany, Sweden, Holland, England and France. Of course the list is continuous, but most of these offer training, awards and grants. To find out more about study abroad programs in Europe, ask your nearby university for a directory of study abroad programs or even better start your search online at our no cost resource site. study abroad in Europe.

I share tips and resources to help motivated people reach their goals through affordable education – see a list of colleges and universities degrees to meet your interests today.

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Imaging diagnostics market in Central Europe to grow by 14% between 2010 and 2012

Concerted effort during the crisis led to growth in 2009
Company interviews carried out by PMR specifically for the purposes of this report suggest that at a time of recession firms have been consistently seeking ways to pull through. They have had to stay focused and have worked closely with partners and distributors around the world, looking at each deal and focusing on what they could do to support and help out to obtain the purchase order. This pattern on the market allowed some growth in the year 2009, but nothing substantial. The companies offered a range of sale, lease, pay per procedure and financing arrangements to accommodate customer requirements. Equipment leasing allowed customers to save money and made the acquisition of new technologies possible.

Poland holds the most substantial share by value but not per capita
The largest market share is held by Poland, where approximately 33% of total sales are generated. Sales of imaging diagnostics devices in the Czech Republic generate about one-fifth of the total market, whereas Bulgaria accounts for only 6%.

“It is worthy of note that the market in Poland is worth so much chiefly because of its large population, rather than substantial per capita spending on such devices. In this aspect, Slovakia and the Czech Republic seem to be the most developed countries. The worst situation is found in Romania, where only €2,200 per 1,000 people was spent on imaging diagnostics equipment in 2009.” says Monika Stefanczyk, PMR’s Head Pharmaceutical Market Analyst and the report’s coordinator.

X-ray method still common in Central Europe
Photographic film-based systems are still prevalent in most of the Central European countries, as they have not been replaced completely by digital radiography, particularly in Bulgaria and Romania. In film-based systems, the high energy radiation essentially passes through anatomical structures to form images on the photographic film. Although functionally the same, digital X-ray differs only in the image acquisition function, in which a flat panel detector is used to convert X-rays into visual images. Digital radiography is expected to be one of the major drivers of the X-ray market in Eastern Europe between 2010 and 2012. Digital X-ray helps to improve efficiency, with digital transmission of electronic images, and also to increase patient throughput. The need for human operators is also eliminated, leading to obvious cost-saving advantages. Fluoroscopy tracks the movement of internal organs by converting the X-rays to light once they have penetrated the patient’s body. The images can then be viewed on the monitor in real time. Radiography is used for general diagnosis and the detection of injury and disease.


Diverse technological advances in ultrasound
Ultrasound consists of a transducer which transmits sound waves. These are reflected by anatomical structures. The echoes are transmitted back and electronically processed to appear as an image on the monitor. The major applications of ultrasound are obstetrics, abdominal ailments, gynaecology and urology. The capabilities, such as acquiring real-time images without ionising radiation, make ultrasound a very popular and patient-friendly modality. Abdominal ultrasound is most widely and effectively used in the detection of gall and kidney stones, along with the examination of the kidneys, liver and spleen. The ultrasound process has seen various technological advances. These include the development of Doppler systems and 3D and 4D imaging capabilities, which make better diagnosis possible.

CT: one of the emerging modalities
Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the emerging modalities on the Central European market. It typically consists of a series of X-ray tube detectors used to obtain a cross-sectional image of the body. The detectors revolve around the body to take readings from various angles, which are later reconstructed by the software programme. CT can be in single, dual, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 or 256 slices. The more slices, the better the image quality and the shorter the time taken to obtain an image. CT has a wide range of applications, including thoracic and cardiac imaging. However, certain issues have surfaced in the recent past about the disadvantages of CT, as it uses ionising radiation.

MRI: expensive modality in terms of equipment and scanning costs
Of the popularly used diagnostic imaging modalities, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ranks next after nuclear imaging in the value chain. This means that MRI is the second most expensive modality after nuclear imaging in terms of equipment and scanning costs. MRI images the body in different planes by placing the patient in a powerful static magnetic field, which aligns the hydrogen atoms within the body. The technique evaluates the water content of the tissue structures, making them discernible. MRI systems are: open bore or standard. The high costs of MRI can be attributed to high infrastructure costs, maintenance fees and cost per procedure. The following are the obvious advantages of MRI:

•ability to detect tissues surrounded by bone, unlike other modalities further down the chain
•superior staging and detection of diseases of the CNS, along with those of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems; efficient brain imaging
•improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, which reduces patient complaints of claustrophobia when undergoing an MRI procedure; does not use ionising radiation.

Nuclear imaging: large potential
Nuclear medicine is a relatively new modality in the Central European region. Nuclear medicine imaging systems can be divided into two subgroups: the gamma camera market and the PET scanner market. Radioisotopes are injected into the blood, and a gamma camera or a PET scanner is used to track the isotopes as they reach the target organ. The radioisotopes emit radiation which is detected by the imaging equipment. The potential of nuclear imaging for the provision of information on functional aspects makes it a very interesting area in which healthcare authorities can invest.

This press release is based on information contained in the latest PMR report entitled “Imaging diagnostics market in Central Europe 2010. Development forecasts for 2010-2012″.

PMR ( is a British-American company providing market information, advice and services to international businesses interested in Central and Eastern European countries as well as other emerging markets.


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Information on Europe and Why Is It One of the Top Traveled Continent


Europe is a continent that is full of travel resorts. Covering most of the western peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is split up generally from Asia to the east by the water divide of the Ural Mountains, the Caucasus region, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, and the Black Sea to the southeast. The Arctic Ocean borders the continent of Europe along with the other bodies of water to the north, the well-known and humongous Atlantic Ocean borders the west side of the continent, the Black Sea along with other connected waterways border Europe to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea borders Europe to the south. Yet, a concept dating back to classical antiquity, the borders for Europe are somewhat arbitrary, for as the term continent can refer to a cultural and political distinction.

By surface area, Europe is the second smallest continent in the world covering an estimated 3,930,000 square miles (10,180,000 square kilometers) which is less than 3% of the Earth’s total surface and about 7% of the Earth’s land area. Out of Europe’s 40 plus states, Russia is the largest by both area and population (although the country covers both Europe and Asia), while the smallest one is the Vatican City. Besides Africa and Asia, Europe is the third most populous continent with a population of around 730 million people, which is estimated to be around 11% of the world’s population.

More than 480 million international visitors visit European countries each year, more than half of the global market and also 6 out of 10 most visited countries are European nations. It is easy to see why a well-preserved cultural heritage open borders and its efficient infrastructure makes visiting Europe a breeze, and rarely you will have to travel more than a few hours before you can dive into a whole new culture.

Ray Bowie

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Europe Tour ? A thrilling experience

Europe is famous as the dazzling and ideal destination of the whole world. Italy, Switzerland, UK, Austria, is few of the most visited countries. The sparkling and shimmering clear lakes, and green forests, attract countless travelers from around the world for a holiday in Europe. Europe Tour Package offers a huge chance to the tourists, to discover the affluent enriching legacy of the region.

Some of the places of attraction during the Europe Tour Package are Italy, Germany, Portugal, Greece, Switzerland, UK, Scotland, Ireland, and numerous others. The other European towns like Paris, Rome, London, Madrid, Athens, Amsterdam, Moscow, Florence, Warsaw, and Frankfurt, Vatican City provide some attractive and fascinating sites for the international travelers. The easy accessibility makes all the cities a very interesting destination for the travelers all around the world.

You may take any type of Europe Tour Package; it presents every type of travel alternative from beach to cruise vacations. The educational tours and nature tours also attract many travelers all round the year… European cruise also has a variety of cruises for the tourists. Few of the most famous European cruises are Hebridean Island Cruises, Crystal Cruises, Celebrity Cruises, Golden Star Cruises; Costa Cruises etc.

Europe is thought out to be the most idealistic destinatins in the world. When it comes to passionate Europe, the islands are ideal for this. These isles are famous for their stunning panorama. You can take a romantic stroll with your partner on the stunning and peaceful beaches. The European islands which are extremely popular are Greece islands and Croatia islands.

Vienna, another beautiful heaven for the lovers of music is popular because of the world famous musicians like Mozart and Johan Strauss. Destinations such as the Wienerwald, Donau Park, St. Stephans Cathedral, Palace of Shönbrunn,Prater and the Karlskirche are on the popular list of Vienna.

London is a wonderful destination if you are hunting for a summer holiday than a trip to London would merge olden times with hiphop culture of today, this is what European capital is all about. Top-notch and outstanding museums and plays, delightful and attractive neighborhoods and outstanding places of attraction like Big Ben make discovering London a steady adventure. In short Europe has something for everyone.

Owing to easy accessibility from the 3 cities in United Arab Emirates with direct flights to Europe, European destinations are very popular with the people of UAE. There are about 3 carriers with straight flights from United Arab Emirates to Europe. There are approximately 421 nonstop flights from Dubai, AE to Europe.

Author is an associate editor for Europe Tour Packages. Get all possible information about International Holidays and Europe Vacation Travel. We also provide information about online hotel reservation, Flights Booking and Holiday Packages.

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Europe in the Early Middle Ages ? Migrations, Invasions and Kingdoms

Europe in the Early Middle Ages was marked by large scale migrations and invasions that resulted in establishment of new political units on the territory of the former Western Roman Empire. The Germanic peoples mostly settled in Western, Central and Southern Europe by the end of the 5th century where they established their own kingdoms. Most of them were short-lived except for the Carolingian Empire that absorbed virtually all the remaining Germanic kingdoms in Western and Central Europe by the end of the 8th century.

Migration of the Germanic peoples was followed by the arrival of the Slavic peoples who settled in Eastern Europe, part of Central Europe and the Balkans. However, the majority of the early medieval Slavic states was short-lived as well. They were either conquered by the Carolingian Empire / Holy Roman Empire or the Byzantine Empire.

Early medieval Europe also saw the arrival of the Avars and Bulgarians in the 6th century. The Avars settled in the Pannonian Basin in the mid-6th century (their state was destroyed by the Franks in 803), while the Bulgarians settled in the Eastern Balkan and established an empire in 680.

Following the conquest of North Africa, the Muslims crossed the strait of Gibraltar and invaded the Iberian Peninsula. They conquered the Visigothic Kingdom by 718 when they crossed the Pyrenees. Muslim forces were decisively defeated by the Franks in the Battle of Tours in 732 which marked the end of the Muslim advance in Western Europe. However, the Muslim conquests in Europe did not cease with the Battle of Tours. The Saracens captured Sicily and a part of Southern Italy from the Byzantine Empire in the mid-9th century and threatened Northern Italy and southern France.

At the end of the 9th century, Europe saw the arrival of Hungarians who seriously threatened Central Europe until the mid-10th century when they were decisively defeated by Otto the Great. By the end of the Middle Ages, the Hungarians permanently settled in the Pannonian Basin and adopted the European culture and political organization.

While the Central Europe was threatened by the Hungarians, the Western Europe was seriously endangered by the Vikings. In order to put an end to the Viking threat, King of East Francia Charles the Simple gave the Vikings what is today Normandy as a fief in the early 10th century.

The Viking invasions were also a serious threat to the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms in Great Britain which were unable to withstand the invaders. The Vikings started to settle in England by the mid-9th century and established an independent settlement – Danelaw.

The majority of early medieval kingdoms collapsed during the Early Middle Ages including the strongest of all – the Carolingian Empire. The realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty started to decline after death of Charlemagne in 814 and split into three kingdoms in 843.

Viw published complete overview of medieval history on

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Best Websites to Book Discount Hotels in Europe

Hotels in Europe can be quite pricey especially in certain countries like France and the United Kingdom. That said, finding discount hotels in Europe is absolutely attainable especially if you know which Internet based travel companies offers the best room rates. The key to finding discount hotels in Europe is to look for a Internet based hotel reservation company based in Europe.

The first mistake travelers make is not booking their hotels through a company that does not specialize in any specific regional hotel market but rather a global hotel market. It is essential that you stick with a hotels’ only travel agency instead of a company that sells plane tickets, insurances, car rentals and many other travel related incidentals.

Local hotel reservation agencies in Europe are able to provide travelers with a much wider selection of hotel options and most importantly price ranges for all budgets. The reason why they are able to provide better hotel rates than the hotel itself is because they act as room wholesalers who receive a block of rooms at deep discounts offered to them by the hotels they represent.

Sometimes hotel accommodations throughout Europe need to fulfill a room quota to meet monthly costs. Whenever they know they will be coming short of that quota they will then issue a block of rooms with flash sales to hotel agencies. These agencies are much more easier to be found on the Internet by travelers and whenever they make a booking they will receive a part of the discount.

Now one of the best hotel agencies for booking hotels in Europe is and you’ve probably heard of them before since they are a very big hotel agency. But the reason why I recommend them is because they have offices located all over Europe with a main office in the Netherlands.

Another company that is offering really good discount rooms in Europe is Recently I have been recommending them for hotels in Asia only but for the past few years I have been getting a lot of feedback that their hotel rates for Europe now are very competitive.

Both companies are very reliable and each are partnered with over 85,000 hotels throughout Europe which is a whole lot more than companies like Travelocity, Hotwire and even Orbitz.

Europe based online hotel agencies are the way to go, whether you need a 2 star hotel in Brussels or a 5 star suite in London at last minute hotel rates makes sure to book local and you will get the best prices possible.

Visit Where to Find Discount Hotels Online for reviews of reliable hotel reservation agencies by a travel industry insider.

Edwin M. Clark is an independent travel consultant working for large corporations in the travel industry. Currently he resides in Thailand where he enjoys writing articles and reviews on

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Greek Islands ? One of the breathtaking beauties in Europe

Europe is the perfect destination in the world to go for vacation with friends, families and loved ones. Travel to Europe is one of the best options to explore when planned.  Before traveling to Europe you should know which are the regions or continents known for tourist attractions and where to go first. There are several countries in Europe to explore which are also famous for most visited by many tourists every year. Austria, Switzerland, Rome, Paris, Germany and lot more other regions are famous in Europe. This country lies on the seventh continental and preserves various elements. When you visit to Germany which lies to the central north part of Europe you can see various beautiful and historical sites including enchanted castles which were built several centuries ago. If you are nature lover then a visit to Germany is must to watch natural beauties.

When you travel to Europe, Switzerland is one of the best destinations which are also known as paradise. As soon as you visit this region you can see awful and amazing sceneries with beautiful stunning mountains, waterfalls, lakes and lot more. The best season to explore Switzerland is in winter because the most famous Alps Mountain, grass, trees, houses, rivers are covered with the blanket of snow. When you trek on the mountaineer region you can see the mesmerizing view of glaciers and other peaks where adventure lovers participate in various activities. There are many ski resorts available in this place where you can do snowmobiling, skating, snow boarding and lot more. Countries in Europe are many to explore in your vacation, Austria is also named as ‘The City of Music’. You may come to know why this country is named as music city after visiting this place.

Many music composers lived here and composed their tune by exploring on the melody streets and feel the air which made classical music. Other most romantic destination to be visited when travel to Europe is Paris, it is one the best place which preserves one of the wonders of the world known as Eiffel Tower. It is truly a breathtaking site to watch this amazing structure situated in Paris. Accommodation of tourists increases to visit this romantic place every year, majority of couples and honeymooners stay to spend quality time. Europe is one of the biggest country which is jeweled many wonders of the world like London. The most visited site by the tourist in London is to the London Bridge and to Buckingham Palace which is a wonderful site. The list off countries in Europe will never end and also the spots located in this country, so a visit to this country is must you have a wonderful vacation.

Greek Islands is the nudist beach which is best place to hang out with your friends and loved ones. In this islands you are free to do anything you want, there are no restrictions by government. Officially this island has been permitted for the visitors and even local people to take a nude bath in the beach which is not permitted in any other beaches in Greek. Majority of the tourist come to visit Greek Islands are teenager’s boys and girls who come here for hangout and in search of partner for date. It is the best place to relax in the sunny day with your friends in nude position feeling the warm sand. In this island you can see many spectacular views apart from the nude men and women including beautiful scenery, golden sand, crystal clear blue water, palm trees lined on the border of Greek Islands and many more tourist attractions.

There are several famous countries in Europe where you can select one of them as your holiday destination. Travel to Europe can be easy if you get a proper guidance from travel guide. To get more information on this country to explore in your vacation then refer to where you can get all the details from which spots to visit like Greek Islands and where to accommodate and dine.

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